Crypto Acronyms

cryptocurrency glossary

In the crypto and blockchain space, acronyms are everywhere. That’s why Collective Shift has categorised over 130 of them. The ‘Acronyms’ page is the perfect resource for crypto beginners. (Use it with the Collective Shift Glossary Of Cryptocurrency Terms.)


AMM – Automated market maker

CFMM – Constant function market maker

DAG – Directed Acyclic Graph

DAO – Decentralised Autonomous Organisation

DApp – Decentralised Application

DEX – Decentralised Exchange

HTLC – Hashed Timelock Contract

IPFS – InterPlanetary File System

L1 – Layer One

L2 – Layer Two

LBP – Liquidity bootstrapping pool

NFT – Non-Fungible Token

P2P – Peer-to-Peer

PKI – Public Key Infrastructure

SMR – State Machine Replication

TCR – Token Curated Registry

TPS – Transactions Per Second

TXID – Transaction ID

UTXO – Unspent Transaction Output

vAMM – Virtual automated market maker

ZKP – Zero-Knowledge Proof

zkSNARK – Zero-Knowledge Succinct Non-Interactive Argument of Knowledge


BIP – Bitcoin Improvement Proposal

BTC – Bitcoin

DLC – Discreet log contract

LN – Lightning Network

LND – Lightning Network Daemon

MAST – Merkelised Abstract Syntax Tree

P2EP – Pay to EndPoint

P2SH – Pay To Script Hash

P2WPKH – Pay To Witness Public Key Hash

P2WSH – Pay To Witness Script Hash

P2TR – Pay to Taproot

SegWit –Segregated Witness

SHA – Secure Hash Algorithm

UASF – User-Activated Soft Fork


BFT – Byzantine Fault Tolerance

DBFT – Delegated Byzantine Fault Tolerance

DPoS – Delegated Proof of Stake

GHOST – Greediest Heaviest Observed Subtree

GRANDPA – GHOST-based Recursive ANcestor Deriving Prefix Agreement

LFT2 – Loop Fault Tolerance 2.0

PBFT – Partial Byzantine Fault Tolerance

PBFT – Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance

PoA – Proof of Authority

PoS – Proof of Stake

PoW – Proof of Work


DeFi – Decentralised Finance

EEA – Enterprise Ethereum Alliance

EF – Ethereum Foundation

EIP – Ethereum Improvement Proposal

ENS – Ethereum Name Service

EOA – Externally owned account

ERC – Ethereum Request for Comments

ETH – Ether

EVM – Ethereum Virtual Machine

TVL – Total value locked

WETH – Wrapped Ether


ACH – Automated Clearing House

AGS – Australian Government Securities

APR – Annual Percentage Rate

BECS – Bulk Electronic Clearing System

BNPL – Buy now pay later

CAGR – Compound annual growth rate

CAPM – Capital asset pricing model

CDO – Collateralised debt obligation

CFD – Contract for difference

CLO – Collateralised loan obligation

EM – Emerging market

ETF – Exchange-Traded Fund

ETP – Exchange-Traded Product

FX – Foreign exchange

HFT – High-frequency trading

HQLA – High-quality liquid assets

IRA – Individual Retirement Account

GMRA – Global Master Repurchase Agreement

LCR – Liquidity coverage ratio

LIC – Listed investment company

LP – Liquidity provider

MBS – Mortgage-backed securities

MoE – Medium of Exchange

mREIT – Mortgage real estate investment trust

NAV – Net asset value

NPP – New Payments Platform

REIT – Real estate investment trust

RITS – Reserve Bank Information & Transfer System

SMSF – Self-Managed Superannuation Fund

SoV – Store of Value

TGA – Treasury General Account

UoA – Unit of Account


DAICO – Decentralised Autonomous Initial Coin Offering

DDG – Due diligence questionnaire

ICO – Initial Coin Offering

IDO – Initial DEX Offering

IEO – Initial Exchange Offering

IFO – Initial Future Offering

IICO – Interactive Initial Coin Offering

MTO – Micro Token Offering

MTO – Milestone Token Offering

PIPE – Private investment in public equity

RICO – Reverse initial coin offering

SAFT – Simple Agreement for Future Tokens

SPAC – Special purpose acquisition company

STO – Security Token Offering

TBC – Token Bonding Curve

VC – Venture capital


ASIC – Application-Specific Integrated Circuit

CPU – Central Processing Unit

FPGA – Field-programmable gate array

GPU – Graphics Processing Unit

HDD – Hard disk drive

HSM – Hardware Security Module

IC – Integrated Circuit

SSD – Solid-state drive


DYOR – Do Your Own Research

FOMO – Fear Of Missing Out

FUD – Fear, Uncertainty, and Doubt

TL;DR – Too Long; Didn’t Read


ADAM – Association for Digital Asset Markets

ADCA – Australian Digital Commerce Association

ADI – Authorised Deposit-taking Institution

APRA – Australian Prudential Regulation Authority

ASIC – Australian Securities and Investments Commission

ATO – Australian Taxation Office

ATS – Alternative Trading System

BCBS – Basel Committee on Banking Supervision

CBDC – Central Bank Digital Currency

CFTC – Commodity Futures Trading Commission

COAG – Council of Australian Governments

DOJ – Department of Justice

ESMA – European Securities and Markets Authority

FATF – Financial Action Task Force

FDIC – Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation

FinCEN – Financial Crimes Enforcement Network

FINRA – Financial Industry Regulatory Authority

FSA – Financial Services Agency

FSB – Financial Stability Board

FSOC – Financial Stability Oversight Council

FVEY – Five Eyes

G7 – Group of Seven

G20 – Group of Twenty

GDPR – General Data Protection Regulation

ICMA – International Capital Market Association

IRS – Internal Revenue Service

KFTC – Korea Fair Trade Commission

OFAC – Office of Foreign Assets Control

PSD2 – Payment Services Directive

SEC – Securities and Exchange Commission

TARP – Troubled Asset Relief Program

VASP – Virtual Asset Service Provider


2FA – Two-Factor Authentication

AML – Anti-Money Laundering

BLS – Boneh–Lynn–Shacham

CA – Certificate authority

DDoS – Distributed denial-of-service

DoS – Denial of service

E2EE – End-to-end encryption

ECC – Elliptic-Curve Cryptography

ECDSA – Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm

KYC – Know Your Customer

MPC – Multi-Party Computation

PGP – Pretty Good Privacy

RSA – Rivest–Shamir–Adleman

sMPC – Secure multi-party computation

SSL – Secure Sockets Layer

TEE – Trusted Execution Environment

TLS – Transport Layer Security

VPN – Virtual Private Network

VRF – Verifiable random function


API – Application Programming Interface

CSV – Comma-Separated Values

FOSS – Free and Open Source Software

HTTP – Hypertext Transfer Protocol

PWA – Progressive web application

REST – Representational state transfer

SaaS – Software as a Service

REST – Representational State Transfer

UI – User Interface

UX – User Experience

XML – Extensible Markup Language


ADL – Auto-deleveraging

AON – All or None

APPT – Average profit per trade

ATH – All-Time High

ATL – All-Time Low

ATR – Average true range

BB – Bollinger Band

DCA – Dollar-Cost Averaging

EMA – Exponential Moving Average

FA – Fundamental Analysis

FOK – Fill or Kill

ITM – In the money

MACD – Moving Average Convergence Divergence

MVRV – Market Value to Realised Value

NVT – Network Value to Transactions

OCO – One-Cancels-Other

OHLC – Open high low close

OTC – Over-the-Counter

OTM – Out of the money

PnD – Pump and Dump

ROI – Return on Investment

RSI – Relative Strength Index

SMA – Simple Moving Average

TA – Technical Analysis

VIX – Volatility index

VWAP – Volume-weighted average price

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